Phthalic esters as alkylating agents

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R. Clay , Bungay, Suffolk
Phthalate es
Statementby Harold King and E. V. Wright.
ContributionsWright, E. V.
The Physical Object
Paginationp. 1168-1170 ;
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL21800227M

Phthalic esters as alkylating agents. Harold King and E. Wright Abstract. The first page of this article is displayed as the abstract. About. Cited by. Related. Back to tab navigation. Download options For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals and books. Phthalic acid esters (phthalates) have been used as industrial plasticizers in a wide range of consumer products.

Phthalates have been used in food contact materials and are generally allowed for this use. A recent food safety concern has arisen from the unapproved use of certain phthalates in a broad range of food/nutraceutical ingredients from Taiwan [53]. Phthalic Acid Ester.

Description Phthalic esters as alkylating agents FB2

Phthalate esters are commonly used as plasticizers to impart flexibility to plastics, particularly polyvinylchloride polymers (PVCs), which have a wide variety of biomedical and other uses such as building and construction, home furnishings, cars, clothing, and food wrappings.

Phthalate esters are prepared by the esterification of two moles of a monohydric alcohol with one mole of phthalic anhydride as shown in Figure gh phthalate esters can be prepared from many different alcohols, the range of alcohols used to make plasticizers for.

Phthalates (US: / ˈ θ æ l eɪ t s /, UK: / ˈ θ ɑː l eɪ t s /), or phthalate esters, are esters of phthalic are mainly used as plasticizers, i.e., substances added to plastics to increase their flexibility, transparency, durability, and longevity. They are used primarily to soften polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

Lower-molecular-weight phthalates, those derived from C3-C6. Phthalic Acid Phthalate Ester Bioaccumulation Factor Phthalic Anhydride High Performance Liquid Chromatogra These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors.

This process is experimental Phthalic esters as alkylating agents book the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. For instance, strong acid/alcohol interactions during the process of drug salt formation produce alkylating agents such as alkyl halides and alkyl esters of alkyl sulfonic acids.

The genotoxicity of a few classic alkylating agents such as methyl and ethyl methanesulfonate have been previously well characterized, whereas the majority of. Phthalic acid is an aromatic dicarboxylic acid, with formula C6H4(COOH)2. Phthalic acid is used mainly in the form of the anhydride to produce other chemicals such as dyes, perfumes, saccharin, phthalates and many other useful ic acid, when found in tissues or Phthalic esters as alkylating agents book arises from exposure to these phthalate products.

Phthalate is an environmental chemical of heightened public. Alkylating agents are compounds that work by adding an alkyl group to the guanine base of the DNA molecule, preventing the strands of the double helix from linking as they should. This causes breakage of the DNA strands, affecting the ability of the cancer cell to multiply.

Eventually, the cancer cell dies. A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. | Explore the latest full-text research PDFs. Abstract. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are the most commonly used plasticizers which are added to provide desired flexibility and clarity to the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics used in packaging, storage and delivery of food, drugs and cosmetics.

Keywords: Alkylation, diazomethane, esters, aryl ethers, enol ethers, thioethers Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Classification of Alkylating Agents 3.

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Alkylating Agents used in Basic Conditions Alkyl halides Sulfonate esters Oxonium salts Dimethyl sulfate Dimethyl carbonate Tetramethylammonium salts 4.

This article is cited by 14 publications. Benjamin Jeffries, Zhong Wang, Jérôme Graton, Simon D. Holland, Thomasin Brind, Ryan D. Greenwood, Jean-Yves Le Questel, James S. Scott, Elisabetta Chiarparin, Bruno Linclau.

Reducing the Lipophilicity of Perfluoroalkyl Groups by CF2–F/CF2–Me or CF3/CH3 Exchange. Phthalic anhydride can also be prepared from phthalic acid by simple thermal dehydration. Uses Phthalate esters plasticizers.

The primary use of phthalic anhydride is a precursor to phthalate esters, used as plasticizers in vinyl ate esters are derived from phthalic anhydride by the alcoholysis reaction.

In the s, approximately ×10 9 kg of these esters were produced. Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version.

Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. USA US07/, USA USA US A US A US A US A US A US A US A US A US A Authority US United States Prior art keywords naphthalene process according mass mixture specified Prior art date Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion.

Bower RK, Haberman S, Minton PD. Terotogenic effects in the chick embryo caused by esters of phthalic acid. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Feb; (2)– Dillingham EO, Mast RW, Bass GE, Autian J. Toxicity of methyl- and halogen-substituted alcohols in tissue culture relative to structure-activity models and acute toxicity in mice.

Phthalates are diesters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid) containing a benzene ring with two ester functional groups (Fig. ) and they are synthetically produced by esterification of phthalic acid with different ing on the alcohols employed, molecules with different physicochemical properties are obtained.

The individual PA isomers are extensively employed in the synthesis of synthetic agents, for example isophthalic acid (IPA), and terephthalic acid (TPA), which have very broad applications in the preparation of phthalate ester plasticizers and components of polyester fiber, film and fabricated items.

The alkylating agents were the first nonhormonal drugs to be used effectively in the treatment of cancer, and the story behind the recognition of the antitumor effects of these compounds is a remarkable one. During World War I, toxic gases were used as military weapons. The most devastating of these gases was sulfur mustard (Figure ).

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The compound was used as a weapon because of its. A process for preparing phthalic acid esters of formula (I) which comprises reacting the phthalic acids of formula (II) with an aliphatic alcohol in the presence of a catalyst consisting essentially of the dialkyltinoxides of formula (III): ##STR1## wherein R and R 1 are the same or different and include both straight and branch chain aliphatic alkyl groups containing 4 to 13 carbon atoms and.

Melphalan, sold under the trade name Alkeran among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, melanoma, and amyloidosis. It is used by mouth or by injection into a vein. Common side effects include nausea and bone marrow suppression.

Other severe side effects may include anaphylaxis and the development of other cancers. 1. Synthesis of Alkylating Agents SAKSHAM PALAWAT 1 2.

INTRODUCTION Cancer: It is defined as a disease characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of cell division and multiplication of own body’s cell. 2 3.

Alkylating agents • Alkylating agents are the compounds that have groups which form covalent bond with the cell substituents. Phthalic esters as alkylating agents Harold King Not In Library. The Coldstream Guards, Richard Crichton Not In Library.

Publishing History This is a chart to show the when this publisher published books. Along the X axis is time, and on the y axis is. A new method for -alkylation of imidazole, benzimidazole, pyrazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and benzotriazole using trimethyl, triethyl, and tri-n-butyl phosphates as alkylating agents is described.

All these heterocycles are easily converted into the corresponding -alkyl. At high temperature (– °C) esters, orthoesters, carbonates and orthocarbonates have been found to alkylate acidic compounds a B2, mechanism. Phenol gives anisole with methyl acetate in the presence of potassium carbonate.

Thiols and other CH-acidic compounds are also alkylated under such resul. E-Mail Address. Password. Forgotten Password. Remember Me. phthalic ester products are offered for sale by suppliers onof which leather auxiliary agents accounts for 3%, pharmaceutical intermediates accounts for 1%, and agrochemical intermediates accounts for 1%.

A wide variety of phthalic ester options are available to you, such as medicine grade, food grade, and industrial grade. Review of the toxicity of the esters of o-phthalic acid (phthalate esters) London: H.M.S.O., (OCoLC) Material Type: Government publication, National government publication: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: Kevin N Woodward.

A review of the literature reveals that several different phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are capable of causing testicular damage. Phthalate-induced zinc deficiency is consistent with germinal epithelial damage.

Among experimental animals, mice perhaps show the greatest sensitivity to phthalate-induced terata, but high doses/exposure are required. benzenedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester: o-benzenedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester: benzenedicarboxylic acid, diethyl ester: 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diethyl ester: di ethyl phthalate: diethyl 1,2-benzene dicarboxylate: diethyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate: diethyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate: diethyl ester of phthalic acid: diethyl o.These experiments establish that allylic phosphate esters can function as efficient alkylating agents in chemical systems.

They also simulate the role played by pyrophosphate esters in biological systems and demonstrate the chemical feasibility of biogenetic hypotheses which have been suggested.

The alkylating agents include olefins, highly strained cycloparaffins, polyalkylbenzenes, alkyl halides, alcohols, esters, of inorganic and organic acids, and ethers. The aromatic compound may be e.g., a hydrocarbon, an aryl chloride, or bromide, a mono‐or polyhdrydric phenol or its ether.